I would like to call a method to give me a dict of all of the “non-private” (I use the term “private” somewhat loosely here since it does not really exist in Python) and non-builtin attributes (i.e. those that do not begin with a single or double underscore) on a class. Something like vars(MyClass) that would return only the “public” attributes on that class.
I’m aware that
from M import *
does not import objects whose name starts with an underscore. (http://www.python.org/dev/peps/pep-0008/#id25) How does import implement that? Via a builtin function or just by checking for underscores? What is the pythonic way to do this?
class MyClass(object): def __init__(self): do_stuff() def _private(self): print 'private' def __gets_name_mangled(self: print 'becomes _MyClass__gets_name_mangled()' def public(self): print 'public'
If I do
['_MyClass__gets_name_mangled', '__module__', '_private', '__doc__', '__dict__', '__weakref__', 'public', '__init__']
How can I get only
Or do I just need to check for underscores myself? It just seems like there would be a pythonic way to do this.
For more on underscores and double underscores, see:
What is the meaning of a single- and a double-underscore before an object name?
Actually, it would be unpythonic for such function to exists – because “officially” there is no private or protected fields/properties in Python.
While it makes sense to throw away module attributes with leading underscores (which are usually some implementation details) during
import * from some module*, it is not useful in context of any other object.
So, if you need to list only “public” methods/attributes of an object, just iterate through result of
dir and drop names with leading underscores.
import * from some module’”
Usually it is not the best practice. Consider the next example:
This code in module
C works as expected:
from A import a1, a2 from B import *
Imagine we add function
a1 in module
B. Now suddenly module
C is broken, although we haven’t touched it.